What a Difference a Century Makes: 1916
By: M. Callahan
1916 US Population: 101,961,000
President: Woodrow Wilson
Vice President: Thomas R. Marshall
Sect. of State: Robert Lansing
Virginia Governor: Henry Carter Stuart
Chief Justice Supreme Court: Edward Douglass White
Speaker of the House: Champ Clark (D-Missouri)
VA Senators: Charles A. Swanson & Thomas Martin
BORN in 1916
Olivia de Havilland, Gregory Peck, Lawrence M. Leonard, James Herriot, Walter Cronkite, Tokyo Rose, Eugene McCarthy
DIED in 1916
Eduard Strauss, Rasputin, Jack London, Henry James, Thomas Eakins, Hetty Green
COST OF COMMON CONSUMER GOODS
Federal Spending: $0.71 billion
Consumer Price Index: 10.9 up from 10.1 in 1915
Unemployment: 5.1% down from 8.5% in 1915
Cost of a first-class stamp: $0.02
Loaf of bread: $0.05
Gallon of gasoline: $0.25
One dozen eggs: $0.28
Quart of milk: $0.90
Pound of Sugar: $0.86
Pound of Coffee: $0.31
Loaf of Bread: $0.05
Movie Ticket: $0.07
Cost of Average Automobile: $875
1 Oz Gold: $20.67
Nobel Prize for Literature: Verner von Heidenstam -Sweden (This was the only Nobel Prize awarded due to WWI)
MEDAL OF HONOR:
All Members of the US Navy
Robert w. Cary
Frank William Crilley
Claud Ashton Rud
Eugene P. Smith
Charles H. Willey
Washington, DC: 1916
Citizens are marching to prepare for war, the suffragette movement, and for keeping everything exactly as it is. Social structures begin to change in favor of higher education for women, and for questioning even the US President's right to hold women back.
Preparedness Marches paraded in many US cities, including Washington pictured above during 1916. The cause had opponents from radical circles claiming that war would encourage many a business to profit off the carnage. Other opponents objected because they believed that WWI should be left a battle between capitalists and emperors, not the working man. This war was a European struggle and should not be fought with American blood. Those with the preparedness movement saw American involvement as inevitable and wanted the country’s industrial strength to turn toward a war footing sooner so American soldiers would be best armed and supplied. They also wanted to encourage the American public to prepare.
The Suffrage Movement continued to headline the news with more and more rallies and protests, especially in Washington against President Wilson’s opposition. By 1916, suffragettes encouraged more women to seek training in industrial settings preparing for their role in WWI and to seek higher educations. Many found a home at George Washington University.
Organized youth groups, particularly the scouts, arranged awareness drives collecting peach pits which were turned into carbon for gas mask filters. The US was sending gas masks to Britain along with food and necessary supplies.
The Fifty-fourth annual convention of ex-slaves was held at the Cosmopolitan Baptist Church on Tenth and N Streets NW from October 22 through November 6, 1916, presided over by Dr. Simon Drew, Pastor of the church. A dinner was served each day for the participants. Former slaves of Gen. Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson were present.
President Wilson and candidates running for president were invited to speak, but no record can be found to indicate who accepted.
IN FLANDERS FIELDS
in Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.
We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.
Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields. ~ Major John McCrae, Canadian
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War News 1916
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